The global food system has been destabilized by the recent Russian invasion of Ukraine, and levels of hunger and existing acute food insecurity are expected to increase even further by the end of 2022.
Beyond the conflict’s borders, farmers around the globe are struggling to afford rising prices on fertilizers, which in turn may lead to harvest declines. Global food prices started to rise in mid-2020 when businesses shut down due to the COVID-19 pandemic, straining supply chains. The conflict, combined with other shocks to the food system have caused even stronger inflation in grocery stores, causing pressure on households’ income around the globe.
Developed by Deep Knowledge Analytics, the new Global Food Security Q2 2022 report provides a comprehensive overview of the Food Security sector.
This is done by focusing on the key trends – root causes of food crises and overview of major aspects of food security such as food dependency, inflation, and policy developments overview. Further, the attention is drawn to the regional overview.
In the course of the study, the Food Security Index was constructed considering the issues of access to food, crisis risks, and the resilience of the economy across 171 countries. The index is a dynamic quantitative and qualitative benchmarking model constructed from 40 unique factors that measure the drivers of food security across both developing and developed countries. Essentially, Food Security Index concept envisages three dimensions: Access to Food, Crisis Level, and Food System and Economy Resilience.
It is a composite indicator that identifies countries at risk from humanitarian emergencies and disasters that could overwhelm current national response capacity, and therefore lead to a need for international assistance.
Food Security Index By Overall Score
The Food Security Index was constructed considering the issues of access to food, crisis risks, and the resilience of the economy across 171 countries. The Index ranges from 0 to 10 where the value closer to 0 shows a more insecure state of the certain country and the value closer to 10 shows a more secure and stable state.
Food Security Index By Access to Food
Globally, hunger levels remain alarmingly high. In 2021, they surpassed all previous records as reported by the “Global Report on Food Crises 2022,” with close to 193 million people acutely food insecure – nearly 40 million more people than during the previous high reached in 2020.
The “Access to Food” dimension measures ease of access to sufficient and nutritious food that meets people’s dietary needs for a healthy and active life.
Food Security Index By Crisis Level
Countries/territories with major food crises mainly driven by conflict were also affected by either weather extremes, economic shocks, including COVID-19 pandemic, or both. These two drivers often fuel tensions and conflicts by increasing competition around limited natural resources and income opportunities.
Crisis Level evaluates a country’s exposure to the impacts of a changing climate, sociological or biological hazards. The maximum value of 6 in our ranking represents an extremely alarming situation in the countries.
Food Security Index By Food System and Economy Resilience
Food System and Economy Resilience assesses resources available that can alleviate the impact of global food crisis. Food imported out of necessity leads to countries’ dependence on external sources as a means of providing food for their populations. This is when food insecurity occurs. Currently, at least 34 countries in the world are unable to produce their own food because of water and land shortages. This represents a significant portion of the global population who are forced to rely on imported food to survive.
The number of countries enacting food-export restrictions has risen by 25%, taking the total to 35. As of the end of March, 2022, 53 new policies affecting food trade had been adopted – 31 of which restricted exports and nine curbed wheat exports. Among those countries that have introduced food export restrictions are major food exporters such as Argentina, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, and Russia, as well as smaller exporters such as Algeria, Turkey, and Serbia.
Top 25 Food Insecure Countries Ranking
25 countries will remain most food insecure according to the Food Security Index Assessment Q2 2022. Countries like Syria and Yemen lead the list as the acute food insecurity and malnutrition situation keeps on deteriorating due to ongoing conflicts and economic crisis in the region. Most food insecure countries of the Ranking are located in Africa, a major importer of food, with millions are now in danger of being pushed into further malnutrition.
The outlook for 2022 and further suggests that hunger and undernourishment will continue to persist and worsen in these countries, given that the aftermath of the war in Ukraine on crucial aspects of food security such as fertilizer prices and supplies, fuel prices have not yet been taken into account into most country level forecasts and analysis.
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