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Investment Migration Programs
Health Risk Assessment
Based on data collected until 16 February 2021


In response to the unprecedented and rising global demand among affluent investors for residence- and citizenship-by-investment (RCBI) programs as a means to overcome the limitations and risks of being restricted to a single residence, Deep Knowledge Analytics (DKA) and Henley & Partners are pleased to present the Investment Migration Programs Health Risk Assessment.


This collaborative effort between DKA, a DeepTech focused agency that produces advanced analytics using sophisticated technology to deliver insightful market intelligence and pragmatic forecasting, and Henley & Partners, the global leader in residence and citizenship planning, draws on three sets of data: DKA’s Covid-19 Regional Safety Assessment and Henley & Partners’ Global Residence Program Index (GRPI) and Global Citizenship Program Index (GCPI), which are published in Investment Migration Programs 2021.


In the face of the coronavirus pandemic, DKA’s original Covid-19 Risk and Safety Assessment study was designed to classify, analyze, and rank the economic, social, and health stability achieved by 250 countries as well as the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats or risks that they present in the battle against the global health and economic crisis triggered by Covid-19. Henley & Partners’ Investment Migration Programs 2021 provides a systematic analysis and benchmarking of the most notable RCBI programs, which are ranked in the GRPI and GCPI.


By extracting the data for the 31 countries that host RCBI programs from DKA’s Covid-19 Risk and Safety Assessment and considering it alongside the results of the GRPI and the GCPI, the Investment Migration Programs Health Risk Assessment presents a detailed analysis of the countries that host investment migration programs as well as the regions in which they are concentrated, providing a fascinating view of each one through the lens of how robustly it has performed during the global pandemic and the likelihood of it being an oasis of longevity in future.


Accompanied by insightful expert commentaries that cover pertinent global and regional aspects, DKA and Henley & Partners are delighted to share this invaluable resource, which we believe will be of great interest to all those seeking longevity for their families and considering investment migration as an option for accessing new opportunities, be they private clients and their advisors, industry professionals, or policy makers wishing to manage investment migration programs in order to achieve fiscal autonomy and economic growth.









Data Points

COVID-19 Regional Safety Assessment: 31 Countries

Select Regional Overview

Rankings of RCBI Countries According to

Healthcare Management and Risk Readiness Parameters 

RCBI countries ranked by 

government efficiency at

risk management

According to this chart Canada, Austria, and Australia have the highest scores for government efficiency. The reason for this is strong national strategies for defense as well as their emergency response mechanisms, in particular those for mitigating the consequences of COVID19. Political stability, the efficiency of government structures, and a low level of corruption also create good conditions for effective risk management.

RCBI countries ranked by emergency preparedness

The energy sector dominates in the UAE and consists of various assets - electricity, oil and natural gas, which are geographically dispersed and connected by systems and networks. The protection of these systems and assets and within the energy sector especially, the safeguarding of oil and gas infrastructure from any and all internal and external threats is a top priority in the UAE. For this reason, UAE has national plans for responding to emergencies, including tectonic activity, climate change, nuclear energy, terrorism and war, etc.

RCBI countries ranked by monitoring and detection

The distinguishing characteristic of the UAE, Canada, St.Kitts and Nevis, New Zealand, and Hong Kong, which score highest in monitoring and detection, is an active development of AI and Machine learning healthcare initiatives and solutions, in particular, those that are related to COVID-19. The governments of those countries also have Government Surveillance  Technologies developed for monitoring.

RCBI countries ranked by quarantine efficiency

During the COVID-19 pandemic, New Zealand implemented graduated, risk-informed national COVID-19 suppression measures aimed at disease elimination. New Zealand moved from a response guided by national influenza pandemic planning which favored a COVID-19-tailored approach focusing on suppression (stopping SARS-CoV-2 community spread) over mitigation (slowing down transmission). Thus, New Zealand's response resulted in a low relative burden of disease, low levels of population disease disparities, and the initial achievement of COVID-19 elimination.

RCBI countries ranked by healthcare readiness

Throughout the pandemic and its consequences, countries have had to invest a lot in their healthcare systems. In particular, the countries that can be seen at the forefront are funding the mobilization of new health resources. The level of progress in health care is quite high, and there is evidence of recent advances and optimization of health care in those regions.

RCBI countries ranked by country vulnerability

The situation with Covid-19 in small countries is complex and diverse. Not all of them face the same problems, and there are both advantages and disadvantages in terms of their virus exposure and ability to respond. In addition, due to the increasing ease and accessibility of air transport and human mobility, the transmission of communicable diseases transmitted by air, food, and by other vector-borne infections is becoming an important public health issue. Thus, Monaco and Cyprus fall into the category of vulnerabilities due to their "tourism connectivity", as both tourism and business continue to dominate the transmission of the virus.

Healthcare Management

Longevity Assessments

Data on World Map


Covid-19-driven volatility has seen a spike in entrepreneurs building diversified domicile portfolios through residence- and citizenship-by-investment (RCBI) to overcome the limitations and risks of being restricted to a single residence. The more jurisdictions a family can access, the more diversified its assets and opportunities and the lower its exposure to country-specific risk and global instability will be.

By extending their wealth planning and legacy management strategies to include investment migration, investors are catalyzing the transition to new lives in countries of their choice that offer a better quality of life, where they feel more comfortable and secure, and where they envisage a future that is better aligned with their aspirations now and for generations to come.

Overlaying DKA’s Covid-19 Regional Safety Assessment with Henley & Partners’ GRPI and GCPI scores provides deep insight into RCBI countries in terms of how well they have managed the current pandemic. 

We believe the results will prove to be invaluable to those interested in acquiring alternative residence or citizenship, enabling them to hone in on what is most important to their families and compare particular aspects of each country they are considering. Our analysis will also help potential investors to manage their own exposure to risk by providing a detailed understanding of each country’s capacity to cope with emergencies.

Before Covid-19, investors chose where to reside based on factors such as quality of life, education options, and travel freedom. Now the biggest drawcards include safety and security, access to first-class healthcare, reliable infrastructure, risk management, and most importantly — better prospects for their families. Our Investment Migration Programs Health and Risk Assessment is the perfect tool, designed to ensure that you make the right decision.


In this section we outline the methodology for the Investment Migration Programs Health Risk Assessment produced by Henley & Partners and Deep Knowledge Analytics (DKA) as well as the methodology for DKA’s Covid-19 Regional Safety Assessment and Henley & Partners’ Global Residence Programs Index (GRPI) and Global Citizenship Programs Index (GCPI). 

Investment Migration Programs Health Risk Assessment methodology

The Investment Migration Programs Health Risk Assessment overlays three different datasets: Deep Knowledge Analytics’ (DKA’s) Covid-19 Regional Safety Assessment and Henley & Partners’ 2021 Global Residence Programs Index (GRPI) and Global Citizenship Programs Index (GCPI), published in Investment Migration Programs 2021.

The data for the 31 countries that host residence- and citizenship-by-investment (RCBI) programs that feature in the GRPI and the GCPI was extracted from DKA’s Covid-19 Regional Safety Assessment and updated with new data collected up until 16 February 2021. The extracted data was then overlayed with the GRPI and GCPI data in various ways. The end result is a new combined dataset for the 31 RCBI countries that includes over 140 parameters and over 4,000 datapoints ⎯ providing deep insights into the health management capacity and risk preparedness of the countries that host the world’s leading RCBI programs. 

To produce the Investment Migration Programs Health Risk Assessment, the total scores for each RBCI country in the GRPI and GCPI have been included and presented along with the six main parameters of the Covid-19 Regional Safety Assessment, namely Quarantine Efficiency, Government Efficiency, Monitoring and Detection, Healthcare Readiness, Country Vulnerability, and Emergency Preparedness. This provides a ranking of RCBI countries viewed through the lens of how well each has managed the coronavirus pandemic. 

The bar-line combination charts provide a deep-dive into each of the abovementioned six parameters, comparing each RCBI country’s performance in the parameter with its total score in the GRPI and/or GCPI. The scatter charts and regional overview maps provide alternative visualizations of the same data overlays.

COVID-19 Regional Safety Assessment methodology

The framework comprises six top-level categories (Quarantine Efficiency, Government Efficiency of Risk Management, Monitoring and Detection, Health Readiness, Regional Resilience and Emergency Preparedness). 

Each category consists of a matrix of sub-parameters (referred to here as Indicators), which relate to specific factors of importance impacting the stability of current regional circumstances, of the effectiveness of various regions’ emergency response efforts, and these variables will also address post-pandemic planning measures in future studies. 

Finally, each indicator itself consists of a matrix of between two and ten quantitative or qualitative sub-parameters relating to the specific topic, analytical focus, and end-point of their parent indicator. Quantitative parameters are numeric and are obtained from a variety of reputable, publicly available sources of data. Qualitative parameters are binary, and regions are assigned either a 1 or a 0, which represents an answer to a specific yes/no question.

The index utilizes a combination of publicly available databases (including but not limited to indexes and region statistics), as well as manually curated and researched quantitative and qualitative data obtained by manual searches using search engines, media, and governmental reports, and the use of expert opinions and consultations in cases where data was not available. 

In utilizing three qualitatively distinct sources of data, Deep Knowledge Group analysts have attempted to overcome barriers in conducting a robust and comprehensive, yet reliable and methodologically-rigorous analysis by utilizing the largest and most reputable databases (usually constructed by an unbiased international group or foundation) where possible, by consulting region-specific resources in cases when open-source international databases are not possible, and finally by utilizing expert opinion in all cases where publicly-accessible regional and/or international sources of data are unavailable. 

By utilizing this approach, the present analysis attempts to find an optimal balance between using maximally transparent and reliable sources of data and including data that are only obtainable from expert consultation.

The full methodology is available here.

The 2021 Global Residence Program Index and Global Citizenship Program Index methodology

In constructing the Global Residence Program Index (GRPI) and Global Citizenship Program Index (GCPI) Henley & Partners referred to multiple sources and experts to obtain and interpret the primarily qualitative data used. We relied principally on the expertise of residence and citizenship analysts and the experience of investors and government officials. As a result, the explanatory power that supports the scores in the different categories is based on surveys, interviews with respondents, and opinions solicited from selected experts. Where possible, the subjectivity of the various factors has been assessed against publicly available data and widely accepted composite indicators.


The factors that are analyzed in each of the indexes are as follows:

Global Residence Program Index

• Reputation

• Quality of Life

• Visa-free or Visa-on-arrival Access

• Processing Time and Quality of Processing

• Compliance

• Investment Requirements

• Tax

• Total Costs

• Time to Citizenship

• Citizenship Requirements


Global Citizenship Program Index

• Reputation

• Quality of Life

• Visa-free or Visa-on-arrival Access

• Processing Time and Quality of Processing

• Compliance

• Investment Requirements

• Residence Requirements

• Relocation Flexibility

• Physical Visit Requirements

• Transparency


Each RCBI program is given a score out of 10 for each equally weighted factor, with 10 indicating excellence and 0 indicating very poor performance. The scores for each factor are added and divided by 10 to arrive at a total score, according to which the countries are ranked. 


The data for surveys and interviews has been consistently collected from a representative sample that includes respondents, experts on citizenship, and practitioners who have been involved in the design of qualitative research in global mobility and related spaces. The sample frame for respondents consists of existing and potential investors, their advisors, and government officials in countries that either already have, or are in the process of establishing, investment migration programs. Relying on potential clients means that the responses of those who decided against proceeding with any program are also included. It may also be noted that among our respondent and expert base are government officials and consultants engaged in investment migration programs that have been discontinued as well as those that are in the process of being established or reformed.

The full methodology is available here.

About Us

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Henley & Partners is the global leader in residence and citizenship planning. Each year, hundreds of wealthy individuals and their advisors rely on our expertise and experience in this area. Our highly qualified professionals work together as one team in over 30 offices worldwide.

The concept of residence and citizenship planning was created by Henley & Partners in the 1990s. As globalization has expanded, residence and citizenship have become topics of significant interest among the increasing number of internationally mobile entrepreneurs and investors whom we proudly serve every day.

Trusted by governments, the firm also runs a leading government advisory practice that has raised more than USD 8 billion in foreign direct investment. We have been involved in strategic consulting and the design, set-up, and operation of the world’s most successful residence and citizenship programs.

Deep Knowledge Analytics is a DeepTech focused agency producing advanced analytics on DeepTech and frontier-technology industries using sophisticated multi-dimensional frameworks and algorithmic methods that combine hundreds of specially-designed and specifically-weighted metrics and parameters to deliver insightful market intelligence, pragmatic forecasting and tangible industry benchmarking.


It is an analytical subsidiary of Deep Knowledge Group, an international consortium of commercial and non-profit organizations focused on the synergetic convergence of DeepTech and Frontier Technologies (AI, Longevity, MedTech, FinTech, GovTech), applying progressive data-driven Invest-Tech solutions with a long-term strategic focus on AI in Healthcare, Longevity and Precision Health, and aiming to achieve positive impact through the support of progressive technologies for the benefit of humanity via scientific research, investment, entrepreneurship, analytics and philanthropy.

Regional Safety Assessment
Henley & Partners
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